Application of epidemiology to obesity

Advanced Search Compelling human epidemiologic and animal model data indicate that during critical periods of prenatal and postnatal mammalian development, nutrition and other environmental stimuli influence developmental pathways and thereby induce permanent changes in metabolism and chronic disease susceptibility. Indeed, data from animal models and humans demonstrate that epigenetic dysregulation can cause obesity. Remarkably, transient administration of exogenous leptin during postnatal development rescues hypothalamic innervation and normalizes adult body weight. In addition to such morphological effects, maternal obesity could affect hypothalamic development at the epigenetic level.

Application of epidemiology to obesity

Obesity Prevention Center OPC The University of Minnesota Obesity Prevention Center OPC provides leadership and coordination at the local, national, and international level for multidisciplinary research and education that focuses on understanding and responding to the worldwide public health crisis of epidemic excessive weight gain and obesity.

The faculty and programs coordinated through OPC seek to be catalysts for interdisciplinary collaboration across the University of Minnesota, between the University and the local community, and between individuals and organizations nationally Application of epidemiology to obesity internationally that wish to address this important public health issue.

Simone French Obesity prevalence has increased during the past 30 years. Children and adolescents who are obese are very likely to be obese as adults.

Application of epidemiology to obesity

No effective Application of epidemiology to obesity for obesity have been identified. The increases in obesity prevalence are easy to document. However, changes in the two behaviors that affect obesity, dietary intake and physical activity, have been challenging. Even more challenging has been the identification of the changes in the food and built environment that have led to excess energy intake, physical inactivity and obesity.

Gaining a better understanding of the environmental variables that influence behaviors related to obesity is important to develop interventions and policies to help reverse the epidemic of obesity and its companion, Type 2 diabetes.

Multiple levels of influence need to be examined, spanning from federal, state and local policies about the food and built environment, transportation policies, neighborhood social factors, including poverty, income and racial and ethnic disparities, the family home environment and parenting practices, leisure time choices and behavioral and genetic variables that might contribute to obesity risk.

Research The Division of Epidemiology has a core of faculty who are internationally recognized for their research on the behavioral and environmental factors associated with obesity, and on interventions designed to prevent obesity in adult, child, and adolescent populations.

Faculty expertise includes nutrition, physical activity, behavioral intervention, community intervention, environmental intervention and health policy. More generally, the University of Minnesota has a strong obesity research base in nutrition, kinesiology, psychology, clinical medicine, the basic sciences, and other supporting fields.

Faculty research areas include Community-level interventions with children, families and under-represented populations low-income and minority: Environmental interventions; Economic factors that influence food purchasing and diet; food marketing and food retailing; Individual behavioral interventions focused on eating and physical activity behavior change; Mechanisms of eating and physical activity behaviors behavioral choice determinants; motivation; social influences ; Clinical intervention methods for weight loss; Genetic and biological risk factors for obesity; Inter-generational transmission of obesity risk epigenetics ; Food policies including economic factors, farm policy, federal food programs ; Transportation and built environment and policies.

Five hundred families with preschool-aged children will participate in the randomized study. The study will include a family advocate who will work with each family to make changes in the home environment related to healthy food choices, reducing screen time, and increasing physical activity.

In Octoberit was determined that there was no difference in cardiovascular events between groups and the trial was transitioned to a longitudinal observational cohort study. Jeffery is the Director of the Epidemiology and Intervention Core, which provides high quality services for epidemiological and behavioral intervention studies to other Center investigators.

This project is part of a U01 mechanism and includes two phases: Lisa Harnack Funding Agency: NIH This study is evaluating whether prohibiting the purchase of foods high in discretionary calories with Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program SNAP benefits may improve the nutritional quality of foods purchased and consumed by program participants, especially when paired with an incentive to encourage the purchase of more nutritious foods.

Melissa Laska PI Funding agencies: Recent calls to action from the Institute of Medicine, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other authorities have identified improving access to healthy foods as a primary strategy for local governments to use in advancing obesity prevention efforts, but policy initiatives in this area have been limited.

In this study, the impact of the Minneapolis Staple Food Ordinance will be evaluated by assessing objectively measured changes in: These changes will be assessed pre- and post-policy implementation in two Minnesota cities: Paul, our control community.

The proposed scope of work in this study is important because its takes advantage of a unique opportunity to evaluate an innovative local policy addressing a recommended action area for obesity prevention that aligns with key recommendations by leading obesity prevention authorities.

To our knowledge, the Minneapolis Staple Food Ordinance is the only policy of its kind in the US, and as such it could serve as an important model policy for other local governments if it is successful. Follow-up study with young adults: The EAT survey was revised based on an expanded model, integrating an ecological perspective with Social Cognitive Theory.

Previous Project EAT participants were contacted by mail and asked to complete the revised survey, a dietary questionnaire.

School-based study with teens: A new group of young people are being recruited from middle schools and high schools in Minnesota. This component of the study includes in-school surveys and measurements of student height and weight, as well as measurements of peer, school, and neighborhood environments.

Environmental measures are being completed by peers themselves and school personnel. Jacobs, Lyn Steffen Funding Agency: The CARDIA cohort was recruited in to be balanced on gender, ethnicity, age, and educational attainment among 18 to 30 year-olds in four U.

These participants have now been followed for 20 years to examine inter-relationships of the major risk factors for CHD in young adulthood as well as emerging risk factors.

As the cohort enters middle age, coronary artery calcification will be measured to assess the development of subclinical atherosclerosis and its relationship with antecedent risk factor levels. These trends will help us to better understand the risk factor patterns leading to early disease in an age range when prevention is feasible.

National Cancer Institute Several previous studies have shown that obese women whose body fat is greater in the abdomen than in the hips are at increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease.

This year study is determining whether body fat distribution is also related to risk of breast and endometrial cancer, and total mortality. A sample of 42, postmenopausal Iowa women completed a questionnaire and took measurements of their own bodies.

The women are being followed for occurrence of cancer, using the Iowa cancer registry.Custom Application of Epidemiology to Obesity essay paper In the last decade, obesity in America has significantly increased to the extent that today, more than half of American people are obese.

Obesity rates in developed countries range from alarmingly high, especially in the US, where almost one person in a group of three is obese, to 3 to 4.

Application of epidemiology to obesity

Obesity has been defined as a condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that health may be adversely affected. The classification of overweight and obesity allows the identification of individuals and groups at increased risk of morbidity and premature mortality.

Epigenetic epidemiology of obesity: application of epigenomic technology Robert A Waterland The Departments of Pediatrics and Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, USDA Children's Nutrition Research Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Thesis work or Practicum (for MPH students) must be relevant to the topic of obesity epidemiology and/or prevention Process for documenting completion of the concentration Upon completion of the program requirements, students are required to fill out the Application for Certificate of Completion.

Application of Epidemiology to Obesity. Topics: Epidemiology (The Epidemiology of Obesity, ). The United States is not alone in experiencing increases in the prevalence of obesity.

Similar increases have been reported from a number of other countries and regions of the world. For example, in England, the prevalence of obesity (BMI is. The epidemiology of obesity. Ogden CL(1), Yanovski SZ, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. Author information: (1)National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland , USA.

Obesity Intervention & Epidemiology Research - Epidemiology & Community Health Research