Chinas government procurement and indigenous innovation essay

According to the International Trade Administrationan agency under the Department of Commerce, Taiwan is the top market for semiconductor manufacturing equipment and the sixth largest US export market for semiconductors. As noted by the PCAST reportsemiconductors are not only essential for modern technologies such as computers, cellular telephones, solar panels, medical diagnostics, and self-driving cars, but they are also critical to defense systems, including the F Joint Strike Fighter and the Humvee.

Chinas government procurement and indigenous innovation essay

The local context must be considered as, for example, mudbrick may not be durable in a high rainfall area although a large roof overhang and cement stabilisation can be used to correct for thisand, if the materials are not readily available, the method may be inappropriate.

Other forms of natural building may be considered appropriate technology, though in many cases the emphasis is on sustainability and self-sufficiency rather than affordability or suitability. As such, many buildings are also built to function as autonomous buildings e.

One example of an organisation that applies appropriate earthbuilding techniques would be Builders Without Borders. The building structure must also be considered. Cost-effectiveness is an important issue in projects based around appropriate technology, and one of the most efficient designs herein is the public housing approach.

In addition, to decrease costs of operation heating, cooling, Organizations as Architecture for Humanity also follows principles consistent with appropriate technology, aiming to serve the needs of poor and disaster-affected people. Chunchenaturally ventilated sheds for drying raisins in Xinjiang Natural ventilation can be created by providing vents in the upper level of a building to allow warm air to rise by convection and escape to the outside, while cooler air is drawn in through vents at the lower level.

Electrical powered fans e. A solar chimney often referred to as thermal chimney improves this natural ventilation by using convection of air heated by passive solar energy.

To further maximize the cooling effect, the incoming air may be led through underground ducts before it is allowed to enter the building. It is not known who first invented the windcatcher, but it still can be seen in many countries today.

Windcatchers come in various designs, such as the uni-directional, bi-directional, and multi-directional.

Material Information

A passive down-draft cooltower may be used in a hot, arid climate to provide a sustainable way to provide air conditioning. Water is allowed to evaporate at the top of a tower, either by using evaporative cooling pads or by spraying water.

Evaporation cools the incoming air, causing a downdraft of cool air that will bring down the temperature inside the building. Agriculture[ edit ] Appropriate technology has been applied extensively to improve agricultural production in developing countries.

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Water and sanitation[ edit ] Further information: As ofwaterborne diseases are estimated to cause 1. The quality of water from household connections and community water points in low-income countries is not reliably safe for direct human consumption.

Water extracted directly from surface waters and open hand-dug shallow wells nearly always requires treatment. Appropriate technology options in water treatment include both community-scale and household-scale point-of-use POU designs.

The most reliable way to kill microbial pathogenic agents is to heat water to a rolling boil. Over the past decade, an increasing number of field-based studies have been undertaken to determine the success of POU measures in reducing waterborne disease.

The ability of POU options to reduce disease is a function of both their ability to remove microbial pathogens if properly applied and such social factors as ease of use and cultural appropriateness.

Technologies may generate more or less health benefit than their lab-based microbial removal performance would suggest. The current priority of the proponents of POU treatment is to reach large numbers of low-income households on a sustainable basis. Few POU measures have reached significant scale thus far, but efforts to promote and commercially distribute these products to the world's poor have only been under way for a few years.

On the other hand, small-scale water treatment is reaching increasing fractions of the population in low-income countries, particularly in South and Southeast Asia, in the form of water treatment kiosks also known as water refill stations or packaged water producers.

Chinas government procurement and indigenous innovation essay

While quality control and quality assurance in such locations may be variable, sophisticated technology such as multi-stage particle filtration, UV irradiation, ozonation, and membrane filtration is applied with increasing frequency. Such microenterprises are able to vend water at extremely low prices, with increasing government regulation.

Initial assessments of vended water quality are encouraging. Whether applied at the household or community level, some examples of specific treatment processes include: Porous ceramic filtrationusing either clay or diatomaceous earthand oriented as either cylinder, pot, or disk, with gravity-fed or siphon-driven delivery systems.

Silver is frequently added to provide antimicrobial enhancement Intermittently operated slow-sand filtrationalso known as biosand filtration Chlorine disinfectionemploying calcium hypochlorite powder, sodium hypochlorite solution, or sodium dichloroisocyanurate NaDCC tablets Chemical flocculationusing either commercially produced iron or aluminum salts or the crushed seeds of certain plants, such as Moringa oleifera.

Recent work has shown even table salt NaCl is effective at removing high-activity clays for solar water disinfection.About three years ago, an official document circulated in Shenhu County, where Mr.

Chinas government procurement and indigenous innovation essay

Zhan lives, telling fishermen not to go to the disputed waters, said an employee at a local fishing information center who identified himself only as Mr. Chen.

Japan had reestablished relations with the Republic of China after World War II, and cordial relations were maintained with the nationalist government when it was exiled to Taiwan, a policy that won Japan the enmity of the People's Republic of China, which was established in Japan - The Politics and Government Japan.

AS THE S BEGAN, Japan's oldest living person was Fujisawa Mitsu, years old.

The Energy Industry’s Direct Role in the Economy

In the year of her birth, (the ninth year of the Meiji era), the government ended the special status of the samurai, taking away their stipends and prohibiting them from wearing swords.

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Vol. 2, Issue 3 Home Global Taiwan Brief Vol. 2, Issue 3. Vol. 2, Issue 3. The views in this essay are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect the position of any organization with which she is affiliated. This is because, rather than creating their own weapon procurement programs, they adopted a variety of collaboration.

Mark Latham Commodity Equity Intelligence Service - Commodity Intelligence LLP