Administered over a barangay of 40 to 50 families Collected tribute in the barangay Position was originally hereditary among the local elites of the pre-colonial period Position was made elective in ; the gobernadorcillo and other cabezas chose a name and presented it to the Governor General for appointment to the position in a specific barangay. After three years of service, a cabeza was qualified for election to the office of the gobernadorcillo.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The Spanish period Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial.
The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies Spice Islandsbut, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago.
The Portuguese navigator and explorer Ferdinand Magellan headed the first Spanish foray to the Philippines when he made landfall on Cebu in March ; a short time later he met an untimely death on the nearby island of Mactan.
The Spanish city of Manila was founded inand by the end of the 16th century most of the coastal and lowland areas from Luzon to northern Mindanao were under Spanish control. Friars marched with soldiers and soon accomplished the nominal conversion to Roman Catholicism of all the local people under Spanish administration.
Ferdinand Magellan, painting, But abusive treatment of the local tribute payers and neglect of religious instruction by encomenderos collectors of the tributeas well as frequent withholding of revenues from the crown, caused the Spanish to abandon the system by the end of the 17th century.
The governor-general, himself appointed by the king, began to appoint his own civil and military governors to rule directly.
Central government in Manila retained a medieval cast until the 19th century, and the governor-general was so powerful that he was often likened to an independent monarch. He dominated the Audienciaor high court, was captain-general of the armed forces, and enjoyed the privilege of engaging in commerce for private profit.
Manila dominated the islands not only as the political capital. The galleon trade with AcapulcoMex. The exchange of Chinese silks for Mexican silver not only kept in Manila those Spanish who were seeking quick profit, but it also attracted a large Chinese community. The Chinese, despite being the victims of periodic massacres at the hands of suspicious Spanish, persisted and soon established a dominance of commerce that survived through the centuries.
Manila was also the ecclesiastical capital of the Philippines. The governor-general was civil head of the church in the islands, but the archbishop vied with him for political supremacy.
In the late 17th and 18th centuries the archbishop, who also had the legal status of lieutenant governor, frequently won. Augmenting their political power, religious orders, Roman Catholic hospitals and schools, and bishops acquired great wealth, mostly in land.
Royal grants and devises formed the core of their holdings, but many arbitrary extensions were made beyond the boundaries of the original grants. The power of the church derived not simply from wealth and official status. The priests and friars had a command of local languages rare among the lay Spanish, and in the provinces they outnumbered civil officials.
Thus, they were an invaluable source of information to the colonial government. The cultural goal of the Spanish clergy was nothing less than the full Christianization and Hispanization of the Filipino. In the first decades of missionary work, local religions were vigorously suppressed; old practices were not tolerated.
But as the Christian laity grew in number and the zeal of the clergy waned, it became increasingly difficult to prevent the preservation of ancient beliefs and customs under Roman Catholic garb.
Thus, even in the area of religion, pre-Spanish Filipino culture was not entirely destroyed. Economic and political institutions were also altered under Spanish impact but perhaps less thoroughly than in the religious realm.
The priests tried to move all the people into pueblos, or villages, surrounding the great stone churches. But the dispersed demographic patterns of the old barangays largely persisted. Agricultural technology changed very slowly until the late 18th century, as shifting cultivation gradually gave way to more intensive sedentary farming, partly under the guidance of the friars.
The socioeconomic consequences of the Spanish policies that accompanied this shift reinforced class differences. The datus and other representatives of the old noble class took advantage of the introduction of the Western concept of absolute ownership of land to claim as their own fields cultivated by their various retainers, even though traditional land rights had been limited to usufruct.
These heirs of pre-Spanish nobility were known as the principalia and played an important role in the friar-dominated local government.After much fighting with the Spanish the Philippines established the first Philippine Republic but this victory was short lived. The Spanish lost control of the Philippines after the Spanish-American war in the Treaty of Paris ().
2. Literacy is closely intertwined to . Philippines - The Spanish period: Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial.
The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. May 20, · The Spanish Period started in and ended in Crispin Maslog in his Philippine Mass Communications, a Mini-History stated that though the written works under this era were produced by the Spaniards and were written in Spanish as a tool to epitomize their powerful colonial rule over their colonies, this was still the period.
The Spanish colonial era Spanish was first introduced to the Philippines in , when the conquistador, Miguel López de Legazpi founded the first Spanish settlement on the island of Cebu. The Philippines, ruled from Mexico City was a Spanish territory for years ().5/5(2).