Hemorrhage is a major complication of abnormal placentation, and early diagnosis and intervention in these conditions can more readily enable the physician to minimize the risks to mother and fetus. The current widespread use of ultrasound in obstetrics has greatly advanced our ability to diagnose and manage abnormal obstetric bleeding.
Placenta Previa — Pathophysiology for nurses What is Placenta Previa Placenta previa is when the placenta either partially or completely covers the opening of the cervix of the pregnant patient. Severe bleeding can occur with placenta previa before, during or even after delivery.
Oxygen and nutrients are supplied to the fetus by the placenta. The placenta also removes waste products from the babies blood. All this activity is done via the umbilical cord. Usually the placenta will attach to the uterus of the pregnant patient at the side or top of the uterus, in placenta previa however, the placenta attaches to the lower part of the uterus.
Patients with placenta previa are usually placed on physical restriction during part of the pregnancy and may require a cesarean section at the time of delivery. Signs and Symptoms Painless vaginal bleeding is the hallmark sign of placenta previa.
The bleeding may be scant or heavy and can stop at any time without treatment. It may return several days to weeks later. Although rare, it is also possible that some patients may experience contractions.
It is important to remind pregnant patients that if they experience vaginal bleeding to contact their healthcare provider right away. Risk Factors and Causes Once the embryo implants itself in the uterus, the placenta will start to develop.
If the implantation occurs in the lower part of the uterus, it may grow and develop over the cervix causing a placenta previa. Placenta previa is usually diagnosed by the 2nd trimester by ultrasound exam.
Placenta previa has been associated with: Hemorrhage is also possible after delivery. Diagnostics The diagnosis of placenta previa is usually done by abdominal ultrasound and trans-vaginal ultrasound. The benefit of the trans-vaginal ultrasound is visualization of the placental location when the placenta is thought to be low lying.
An MRI may also be done to determine where the placenta is located. Routine vaginal exams may be avoided to reduce the risk of bleeding. Treatment Once the patient is diagnosed with placenta previa, they will usually be placed on bed rest and more frequent checkups.
If the bleeding can not be controlled, an emergency C-section may be done regardless of the length of the pregnancy to avoid hemorrhage. While marginal previas may be delivered vaginally. A c-section is required for a partial or complete previa.
It is important for the healthcare team to always anticipate possible massive hemorrhage and preterm delivery with placenta previas. Deficient Fluid volume related to excessive vaginal bleeding secondary to abnormal implantation and disruption of the placenta.placenta previa (placenta is near or covers the cervical opening).
placental abruption (placenta detaches prematurely from the uterus). unknown cause. What is placenta previa? Placenta previa is a condition in which the placenta is attached close to or covering the cervix (opening of the uterus).
Placenta previa occurs in about one in every Indeed, the presence of placenta previa is a well-recognized risk factor for placenta accreta. 4, 30, 31 The most important risk factors for placenta previa and accreta are . Placenta Previa is the development of placenta in the lower uterine segment partially or completely covering the internal cervical os.
Placenta Previa causes bleeding. Due to large amounts of blood lost, the heart tries to pump faster in order to compensate for blood loss. The position of your baby and the placenta Bed rest may be the only treatment your doctor recommends if your bleeding is slight or very light. You’ll have to avoid exercise, sex, and pelvic exams.
NURSING CARE PLAN. Nursing Diagnosis Definition: Secondary to placenta previa. AEB (for actual diagnosis) Patient’s progress toward achievement of the outcome as evidenced by: STG: Vital signs WNL, skin warm and usual color, alert and oriented X3, urine output at least 30 cc’s/hr, moist.
The placenta attached right below the c/s scar tissue and (the docs believe) because it couldn't advance upwards due to decreased vascularity, it became a complete previa. Her doc realized she was a potential Code Noelle, and they c/sed her in the Main OR with 4 units on hold the 4 weeks she was in the ante unit.