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College of Engineering North Carolina State University An announcement goes out to the faculty that from now on the university will operate as a total quality management campus.
All academic, business, and service functions will be assessed regularly, and quality teams will plan ways to improve them. A campus quality director and a steering team are named, with the director reporting to the Provost. Many faculty members are irate.
They argue that TQM was developed by and for industry to improve profits, industry and the university are totally different, and talking of students as "customers" is offensive and makes no sense.
They make it clear that they will have nothing to do with this scheme and will view any attempt to compel them to participate as a violation of Teaching elementary research papers academic freedom.
What happens then is…practically nothing. Some changes are made in business and service departments, some curricula are revised, and a few instructors make changes in what they do in their classrooms but most go on teaching the way they have always taught.
After two or three years the steering committee writes its final report declaring the program an unqualified success and disbands, and life goes on. Higher education discovered total quality management in the s and quickly became enamored of it.
Deming himself suggested the linkage between quality management principles and education, claiming that "…improvement of education, and the management of education, require application of the same principles that must be used for the improvement of any process, manufacturing or service" Deming, Some academic programs and many individual faculty members have tried applying quality principles in their work.
Recent papers in engineering education describe quality-based models for classroom instruction Jensen and Robinson ; Shuman et al. Nevertheless, after more than a decade of such efforts, TQM has not established itself as the way many universities operate, especially in matters related to classroom instruction.
Our concern in this paper is specifically with teaching, as opposed to academic or research program structure and administration. We first consider how an instructor can improve the quality of instruction in an individual course, and then the more difficult question of how an academic organization a university, college, or academic department can improve the quality of its instructional program.
In both cases, we examine the potential contribution of quality management principles to teaching improvement programs in light of the cultural differences between industry and the university.
The education literature presents a variety of good teaching strategies and research studies that validate them Campbell and Smith ; Johnson et al.
In the sections that follow, we describe several strategies known to be particularly effective. Write instructional objectives Instructional objectives are statements of specific observable actions that students should be able to perform if they have mastered the content and skills the instructor has attempted to teach Gronlund ; Brent and Felder An instructional objective has one of the following stems: The outcome of the specified action must be directly observable by the instructor: Following are illustrative phrases that might be attached to the stem of an instructional objective, grouped in six categories according to the levels of thinking they require.
Comprehension demonstrating understanding of terms and concepts: Analysis breaking things down into their elements, formulating theoretical explanations or mathematical or logical models for observed phenomena: Synthesis creating something, combining elements in novel ways: Evaluation choosing from among alternatives: The last three categories--synthesis, analysis, and evaluation--are often referred to as the "higher level thinking skills.
Perhaps the greatest benefit comes when the objectives cover all of the content and skills the instructor wishes to teach and they are handed out as study guides prior to examinations. The more explicitly students know what is expected of them, the more likely they will be to meet the expectations.
Use active learning in class Most students cannot stay focused throughout a lecture. After about 10 minutes their attention begins to drift, first for brief moments and then for longer intervals, and by the end of the lecture they are taking in very little and retaining less.
Many different activities can serve this purpose Bonwell and Eison ; Brent and Felder ; Felder a; Johnson et al. At some point during a class period, the instructor tells the students to get into groups of two or three and arbitrarily designates a recorder the second student from the left, the student born closest to the university, any student who has not yet been a recorder that week.
When the groups are in place, the instructor asks a question or poses a short problem and instructs the groups to come up with a response, telling them that only the recorder is allowed to write but any team member may be called on to give the response.caninariojana.com is an elementary education resource site for teachers and homeschoolers.
Educational activities are categorized by subject and or holiday - Language Arts and Literacy, Spanish, ESL, Science, Social Studies, Math activities, Foreign Languages, Creative Arts and Crafts. The Internet TESL Journal is a free online journal for teachers of English as a second language that includes lesson plans, classroom handouts, links of interest to ESL teachers and students, articles, research papers and other things that are of immediate practical use to ESL teachers.
In the News. Congratulations to Tomé Elementary School. Tomé Elementary School in Los Lunas, New Mexico has achieved high levels of school effectiveness by implementing the PLC at Work™ process and High Reliability Schools framework.
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