Communism is defined as follows:
Epidemiology is concerned with the distribution and determinants of health and disease, morbidity, injury, disability, and mortality in populations.
For veterinary epidemiology, this intervention is to enhance not only health but also productivity. Distribution implies that diseases and other health outcomes do not occur randomly in populations; determinants are any factors that cause a change in a health condition or other defined characteristic; morbidity is illness due to a specific disease or health condition; mortality is death due to a specific disease or health condition; and the population at risk can be people, animals, or plants.
Epidemiology is applied in many areas of public health practice. The natural history begins before infection prepathogenesis period when the agent simply exists in the environment, includes the factors that affect its incidence and distribution, and concludes with either its disappearance or persistence endemnicity in that environment.
Although knowledge of the complete natural history is not absolutely necessary for treatment and control of disease in a population, it does facilitate the most effective interventions. An important The basic principle of the animal concept is that neither health nor disease occurs randomly throughout populations.
Innumerable factors influence the temporal waxing and waning of disease.
A disease is considered endemic when it is constantly present within a given geographic area. For instance, animal rabies is endemic in the USA. An epidemic occurs when a disease occurs in larger numbers than expected in a given population and geographic area.
Raccoon rabies was epidemic throughout the eastern USA for much of the s and s. A subset of an epidemic is an outbreak, when the higher disease occurrence occurs in a smaller geographic area and shorter period of time.
The population at risk is an extremely important concept in epidemiology and includes members of the overall population who are capable of developing the disease or condition being studied.
This concept seems simple at first, but misinterpretations can lead to erroneous study results and conclusions. The numerator and denominator may be independent of each other.
In fact, in epidemiology, the term ratio is applied when the numerator is not a subset of the denominator. Therefore, they are not independent.
For example, suppose that, among domestic dogs testing positive for internal parasites in Glendale, Arizona, were male and were female. A rate is another type of ratio in which the denominator involves the passage of time.
This is important in epidemiology, because rates can be used to measure the speed of a disease event or to make epidemiologic comparisons between populations over time. Rates are typically expressed as a measure of the frequency with which an event occurs in a defined population in a defined time eg, the number of foodborne Salmonella infections perpeople annually in the USA.
Incidence is a measure of the new occurrence of a disease event eg, illness or death within a defined time period in a specified population. Two essential components are the number of new cases and the period of time in which those new cases appear.
In an example regarding the class of veterinary students, if 13 of them developed influenza over the course of 3 mo one quarterthe incidence would be 13 cases per quarter. An incidence rate takes the population at risk into account. Incidence rates are usually expressed by a multiplier that makes the number easier to conceptualize and compare.
In this example, the multiplier would beand the incidence rate would be An attack rate is an incidence rate; however, the period of susceptibility is very short usually confined to a single outbreak. A similar concept to incidence is prevalence.
Measures of disease burden typically describe illness and death outcomes as morbidity and mortality, respectively. Morbidity is the measure of illness in a population, and numbers and rates are calculated in a similar fashion as with incidence and prevalence. Mortality is the corresponding measure of death in a population and can be applied to death from general nonspecific causes or from a specific disease.
In the latter case, cause-specific mortality is expressed as the case fatality rate CFRwhich is the number of deaths due to a particular disease occurring among individuals afflicted with that disease in a given time period.
In another example, consider a large veterinary practice in the southwest USA that frequently sees dogs with coccidioidomycosis. The practice diagnosed clinical cases in a particular year, 83 of which died from the disease in the course of that year. The month in which the most cases were diagnosed was September, in which 97 cases were diagnosed.
Further, at a single point in time perhaps based on the results of a serosurvey of dogs in the practice areadogs of 6, dogs with active records in the practice had the disease.
Public health surveillance is defined as the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of outcome-specific data essential to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice.
In epidemiology, health surveillance is accomplished in either passive or active systems. Passive surveillance occurs when individual health care providers or diagnostic laboratories send periodic reports to the public health agency. Because this reporting is voluntary sometimes referred to as being "pushed" to health agenciespassive surveillance tends to underreport disease, especially in diseases with low morbidity and mortality.
Passive surveillance is useful for longterm trend analysis if reporting criteria remain consistent and is much less expensive than active surveillance.Learn basic principles animal animals with free interactive flashcards.
Choose from different sets of basic principles animal animals flashcards on Quizlet. Animal Farm Topic Tracking: Principles of Animalism Principles of Animalism 1: The basic ideas Old Major passes on in his first speech are that humans are the enemy because they overwork the animals and treat them badly.
AVMA Animal Welfare Principles The AVMA, as a medical authority for the health and welfare of animals, offers the following eight integrated principles for developing and evaluating animal welfare policies, resolutions, and actions.
Many of the basic principles of the link between housing and health were elucidated more than 60 years ago by the American Public Health Association (APHA) Committee on the Hygiene of Housing.
Principle One. Abolitionists maintain that all sentient beings, human or nonhuman, have one right—the basic right not to be treated as the property of others. Abolitionists recognize the principle of nonviolence as a core principle of the animal rights movement. Summary. 3. No animal shall wear clothes.
4. No animal shall sleep in a bed. 5. No animal shall drink alcohol. 6. No animal shall kill any other animal. 7. All animals are equal. These commandments were more like an animal constitution or declaration of independence.
They were meant to preserve animal equality and a socialist utopia.