Social Movements Types of Social Classes of People Social class refers to a group of people with similar levels of wealth, influence, and status. Sociologists typically use three methods to determine social class: The subjective method asks people what they think of themselves. The reputational method asks what people think of others.
This often involves the subjugation of groups defined as racially inferior, as in the one-drop rule used in the 19th-century United States to exclude those with any amount of African ancestry from the dominant racial grouping, defined as " white ".
For instance, African-American English is a language spoken by many African Americansespecially in areas of the United States where racial segregation exists. Furthermore, people often self-identify as members of a race for political reasons.
Socioeconomic factors, in combination with early but enduring views of race, have led to considerable suffering within disadvantaged racial groups. This use of racial categories is frequently criticized for perpetuating an outmoded understanding of human biological variation, and promoting stereotypes.
Because in some societies racial groupings correspond closely with patterns of social stratificationfor social scientists studying social inequality, race can be a significant variable.
As sociological factors, racial categories may in part reflect subjective attributions, self-identitiesand social institutions.
In the social sciences, theoretical frameworks such as racial formation theory and critical race theory investigate implications of race as social construction by exploring how the images, ideas and assumptions of race are expressed in everyday life.
A large body of scholarship has traced the relationships between The classification of people by race in society historical, social production of race in legal and criminal language, and their effects on the policing and disproportionate incarceration of certain groups.
Historical origins of racial classification See also: Historical race concepts The three great races according to Meyers Konversations-Lexikon of The subtypes of the Mongoloid race are shown in yellow and orange tones, those of the Caucasoid race in light and medium grayish spring green - cyan tones and those of the Negroid race in brown tones.
Dravidians and Sinhalese are in olive green and their classification is described as uncertain. These features are the distinguishing features of how the concept of race is used today. In this way the idea of race as we understand it today came about during the historical process of exploration and conquest which brought Europeans into contact with groups from different continents, and of the ideology of classification and typology found in the natural sciences.
The rise of the Atlantic slave tradewhich gradually displaced an earlier trade in slaves from throughout the world, created a further incentive to categorize human groups in order to justify the subordination of African slaves.
A set of folk beliefs took hold that linked inherited physical differences between groups to inherited intellectualbehavioraland moral qualities. Brutal conflicts between ethnic groups have existed throughout history and across the world.
But the scientific classification of phenotypic variation was frequently coupled with racist ideas about innate predispositions of different groups, always attributing the most desirable features to the White, European race and arranging the other races along a continuum of progressively undesirable attributes.
The classification of Carl Linnaeusinventor of zoological taxonomy, divided the human species Homo sapiens into continental varieties of europaeus, asiaticus, americanus, and afer, each associated with a different humour: It was further argued that some groups may be the result of mixture between formerly distinct populations, but that careful study could distinguish the ancestral races that had combined to produce admixed groups.
He saw Africans as inferior to Whites especially in regards to their intellect, and imbued with unnatural sexual appetites, but described Native Americans as equals to whites. Polygenism was popular and most widespread in the 19th century, culminating in the founding of the Anthropological Society of Londonwhich, during the period of the American Civil War, broke away from the Ethnological Society of London and its monogenic stancetheir underlined difference lying, relevantly, in the so-called "Negro question": Multiregional hypothesis and Recent single origin hypothesis Today, all humans are classified as belonging to the species Homo sapiens.
However, this is not the first species of homininae: Homo erectus evolved more than 1. Virtually all physical anthropologists agree that Archaic Homo sapiens A group including the possible species H.
Wilson then challenged the concept from the perspective of general animal systematics, and further rejected the claim that "races" were equivalent to "subspecies". Subspecies The term race in biology is used with caution because it can be ambiguous. Generally, when it is used it is effectively a synonym of subspecies.
Traditionally, subspecies are seen as geographically isolated and genetically differentiated populations. Ancestrally differentiated populations clades Some researchers[ who? A clade is a taxonomic group of organisms consisting of a single common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor a monophyletic group.
Every creature produced by sexual reproduction has two immediate lineages, one maternal and one paternal. Philosopher Robin Andreasen proposes that cladistics can be used to categorize human races biologically, and that races can be both biologically real and socially constructed.
Evolutionary biologist Alan Templeton argues that while "Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree," multiple lines of evidence falsify a phylogenetic tree structure, and confirm the presence of gene flow among populations.
They claim that "the molecular and biochemical proponents of this model explicitly use racial categories in their initial grouping of samples".
For example, the large and highly diverse macroethnic groups of East Indians, North Africans, and Europeans are presumptively grouped as Caucasians prior to the analysis of their DNA variation. This is claimed to limit and skew interpretations, obscure other lineage relationships, deemphasize the impact of more immediate clinal environmental factors on genomic diversity, and can cloud our understanding of the true patterns of affinity.
They suggest that the authors of these studies find support for racial distinctions only because they began by assuming the validity of race.
Morphologically differentiated populations Population geneticists have debated whether the concept of population can provide a basis for a new conception of race.
To do this, a working definition of population must be found. Surprisingly, there is no generally accepted concept of population that biologists use.The sociology of race and ethnicity is a large and vibrant subfield within sociology in which researchers and theorists focus on the ways that social, political, and economic relations interact with race and ethnicity in a given society, region, or community.
Racial classification in the United States started in the s with three ethnically distinct groups. These groups were the white Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans.
The concept of race was skewed around these times because of the social implications of belonging to one group or another.
Sociologists define race as a concept that is used to signify different types of human bodies. While there is no biological basis for racial classification, sociologists recognize a long history of attempts to organize groups of people based on similar skin color and physical appearance.
The absence. Social class refers to a group of people with similar levels of wealth, influence, and status. Sociologists typically use three methods to determine social class: The objective method measures and analyzes “hard” facts.; The subjective method asks people what they think of themselves.; The reputational method asks what people think of others.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society. First used to refer to speakers of a common language and then to denote national affiliations, by the 17th century the term race began to refer to physical (phenotypical) traits.
An anthropological understanding of ethnicity and race requires exploring how people and institutions define, negotiate, and even challenge their identities in society. One way anthropologists and social scientist in general do this is by studying status, which refers to.