Develop a range of instructional and assessment methods and test preparation methods. Instruction Linda Gojakformer NCTM President, noted that "Over the last three decades a variety of instructional strategies have been introduced with a goal of increasing student achievement in mathematics. Such strategies include individualized instruction, cooperative learning, direct instruction, inquiry, scaffolding, computer-assisted instruction, and problem solving" with the flipped classroom being a recent addition to the list para. Blended learning is also on the rise, which adds online learning to traditional classrooms.
Learning and Instructional Design One of the key areas where behaviorism impacts instructional design is in the development of instructional objectives. Computer-assisted instruction was very much drill-and-practice - controlled by the program developer rather than the learner.
Little branching of instruction was implemented. The systems approach developed out of the s and s focus on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia presentations and the use of the computer in instruction. Most systems approaches visual aural read/write and kinesthetic intelligence similar to computer flow charts with steps that the designer moves through during the development of instruction.
Individual tasks are broken down and learning objectives are developed. Evaluation consists of determining whether the criterion for the objectives has been met.
In this approach the designer decides what is important for the learner to know and attempts to transfer that knowledge to the learner. The learning package is somewhat of a closed system, since although it may allow for some branching and remediation, the learner is still confined to the designer's "world".
Computers process information in a similar fashion to how cognitive scientists believe humans process information: This analogy makes the possibility of programming a computer to "think" like a person conceivable, i. Artificial intelligence involves the computer working to supply appropriate responses to student input from the computer's data base.
A trouble-shooting programs are examples of these programs.
Constructivism is not compatible with the present systems approach to instructional design. Jonassen points out that the difference between constructivist and objectivist, behavioral and cognitiveinstructional design is that objective design has a predetermined outcome and intervenes in the learning process to map a predetermined concept of reality into the learner's mind, while constructivism maintains that because learning outcomes are not always predictable, instruction should foster, not control, learning.
With this in mind, Jonassen looks at the commonalties among constructivist approaches to learning to suggest a "model" for designing constructivist learning environments. One of the most useful tools for the constructivist designer is hypertext and hypermedia because it allows for a branched design rather than a linear format of instruction.
Reigeluth and Chung suggest a prescriptive system which advocates increased learner control. In this method, students have some background knowledge and have been given some instruction in developing their own metacognitive strategies and have some way to return along the path they have taken, should they become "lost".
To design from a constructivist approach requires that the designer produces a product that is much more facilitative in nature than prescriptive.
The content is not prespecified, direction is determined by the learner, and assessment is much more subjective because it does not depend on specific quantitative criteria, but rather the process and self-evaluation of the learner.
The standard pencil-and-paper tests of mastery learning are not used in constructive design; instead, evaluation is based on notes, early drafts, final products, and journals. In a stressful situation like combat or flying a plane, cued responses can be a very valuable tool.
Unlike behaviorism, which is environment-focused, cognitivism directs instructional designers to consider the learner as the focus of the design process.
Because learners are trained to perform a function the same way based on specific cues, their behavior will be consistent with others who are trained in the same manner. Content can be presented from multiple perspectives using case studies, learners can develop and articulate new and individual representations of information, and active knowledge construction is promoted over passive transmission of information.
Because the learner is able to interpret multiple realities, the learner is better able to deal with real life situations. If learners can problem solve, they may better apply their existing knowledge to a novel situation.
Weaknesses—related to ID Since behaviorism is stimulus — response based, instructional design is dependent on the workplace or classroom having and maintaining the appropriate stimuli to continue the intended behavior.
Thus, if a certain incentive is not present or does not occur, then the expected and desired performance may not take place. Additionally, learning is a reactionary process to an environmental condition and knowledge is considered finite. Skinner realized there is a burden on the instructor to maintain reinforcement.Math Methodology is a three part series on instruction, assessment, and curriculum.
The VARK analysis quiz is to evaluate learning styles. VARK stands for Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic. When taking the quiz, the scores indicated that there was a . Learn more about Howard Gardner's intelligence types: naturalistic, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, visual-spatial, logical-mathematical, and verbal-linguistic. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is about thinking in movements and includes the ability to use movements for. Introduction to Education. Measuring Up: The National Report Card on Higher Education; School: The Story of American Public Education from PBS; The Condition of Education: from the National Center of Education Statistics; Foundational Perspectives in Education: by Sally Atkin and Nora Cohen, Oregon State University; The Virtual Library from Schoolwise Press (hundreds of links to articles and.
Sections contains relevant essays and resources: Part 1: Math Methodology: Instruction The Instruction Essay (Page 1 of 3) on this page contains the following subsections: Introduction to Teaching Challenges. Introduction to Education.
Measuring Up: The National Report Card on Higher Education; School: The Story of American Public Education from PBS; The Condition of Education: from the National Center of Education Statistics; Foundational Perspectives in Education: by Sally Atkin and Nora Cohen, Oregon State University; The Virtual Library from Schoolwise Press (hundreds of links to articles and.
Kinesthetic learning (American English), kinaesthetic learning (British English), or tactile learning is a learning style in which learning takes place by the students carrying out physical activities, rather than listening to a lecture or watching demonstrations.
As cited by Favre (), Dunn and Dunn define kinesthetic learners as students who require . The VARK analysis quiz is to evaluate learning styles. VARK stands for Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic.
When taking the quiz, the scores indicated that there was a . Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic sensory Visual People who learn best when the information is presented in images such as charts, maps, diagrams, hierarchies, patterns, and shapes instead of .
Introduction to Education. Measuring Up: The National Report Card on Higher Education; School: The Story of American Public Education from PBS; The Condition of Education: from the National Center of Education Statistics; Foundational Perspectives in Education: by Sally Atkin and Nora Cohen, Oregon State University; The Virtual Library from .